Holocaust Exhibition Online Activity
The Holocaust was a dark moment in the history of humankind and the amount of information available on this period is extensive. Therefore, you will be surveying several online exhibitions on different areas of the Holocaust.
From the list of recommended Holocaust exhibitions online, you are to choose two (2) websites. Try to choose two websites that address different issues in relation to the Holocaust. (For example, one site about music related to the Holocaust, one site about survivor stories, and one site about diplomatic rescues of European Jews.) Please be aware that some of these links may have changed (for example, all of the ones referring to Yad Vashem, just go to the main home page and look from there).
For each of the three websites, you are asked to answer the following seven (7) questions. Don’t forget your name, date and period at the top of your document.
This assignment is worth 50 points total! Please see the rubric for details!
Author (Last Name, First Name). Title of the web page. Copyright date (if available). Available online at [insert complete web address]. Date visited [insert date].
THIS ASSIGNMENT IS DUE APRIL 8 AT THE END OF CLASS!!
Holocaust Exhibitions Online
For two weeks in August 1936, Adolf Hitler's Nazi dictatorship camouflaged its racist, militaristic character while hosting the Summer Olympic Games. Soft-pedaling its anti-Semitic agenda and plans for territorial expansion, the regime exploited the Games to bedazzle many foreign spectators and journalists with an image of a peaceful, tolerant Germany...This site presents an online version of an exhibition created by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC that was on display at the Museum from July 1996 - June 1997.
Do You Remember When..., a new online exhibition presented by the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, details the life of Manfred Lewin, a young Jew who was active in one of Berlin’s Zionist youth groups until his deportation to and murder in Auschwitz-Birkenau. The exhibition centers around the 17-page artifact, which illustrates the daily life of the young couple and their youth group. It provides a vivid account of the hopes and fears of Jewish youth during the deportations, as well as a glimpse into gay Jewish life during the Holocaust.
The Last Expression project is a forum to explore the roles, functions, meanings and making of art in the Nazi concentration camps if World War II, focusing on the notorious sire of Auschwitz-Birkenau.
The remarkable story of Chiune Sugihara, rescuer of Jews during the Nazi Holocaust. When World War II broke out, Consul Chiune Sugihara's office was flooded with visa requests from thousands of Jews fleeing German-occupied Poland. With the encouragement of his wife Yukiko, Sugihara issued Japanese transit visas to as many as 6,000 Polish Jews, risking his job, his career, his future, and even his safety.
The material contained in this exhibit, commemorating fifty years since the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943, documents the confrontation of life against death and the struggle for human dignity waged on a daily basis by the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto. Its articles, original documents, photographs and other educational materials all testify to this enduring spirit of physical, cultural and religious resistance.
Images of Polish Jews - Those in the photographs do not know yet that soon their houses will be deserted, the streets of their towns covered with the black snow of fluff from slit eiderdowns, that the wisdom of the Book will be able to save no one. All that will remain after them, when the biblical names have left in cattle cars - could be put in a drawer, hidden in the attic, buried in junk.
The Hidden History of the Kovno Ghetto-During the three-year life of the Kovno Ghetto in Lithuania, members of the terrorized Jewish population engaged in a remarkable, organized act of defiance. Determined to leave a record of the ghetto’s history for posterity, many of Kovno's Jews methodically created secret archives, diaries, drawings, and photographs to document German crimes against their community. The history begins in the summer of 1941-soon after German troops invaded Soviet territory, including Soviet-controlled Lithuania.
Many people understand that the policies of the Nazi regime targeted Jews. What many people do not know is that 5 million non-Jews were also victimized during the Holocaust. Here, you will investigate Hitler's policies of targeting people of mixed races, gays and lesbians, gypsies, and the handicapped during the Holocaust.
Beginning in March 1942, a wave of mass murder swept across Europe. During the next 11 months 4,500,000 human beings were eliminated. By the end of World War II the toll had risen to approximately 6,000,000 Jews, which included 1,500,000 children, who perished at the hands of the Nazi murderers. When the killing ended those who survived were released from the concentration camps and came out of hiding. Six detailed accounts, in audio and transcript form, include family photographs as well as links to encyclopedia references and related resources.
Non-Jews who saved Jews during the Holocaust, often at great personal risk, are honored by Yad Vashem as the "Righteous Among The Nations". By saving Jews, these people proved that rescue was possible and by so doing they enhanced the dignity of humanity.
TO SAVE A LIFE: STORIES OF HOLOCAUST RESCUE--In this book you will find true stories narrated by six rescuers accompanied by the narratives of thirteen people whom they rescued. Three stories take place in Holland; the others are set in Poland and Czechoslovakia.
The Auschwitz Album is the only surviving visual evidence of the process of mass murder at Auschwitz-Birkenau. The photos were taken at the end of May or beginning of June 1944, by two SS men whose task was to take ID photos and fingerprints of the inmates (not of the Jews who were sent directly to the gas chambers). The photos show the arrival of Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia.
Yad Vashem's Historical Museum first opened nearly forty years ago; the present chronological-thematic format was introduced in 1973. The museum combines contemporary visual and textual documentation with artifacts and brief written explanations, to tell the story of the Holocaust from the Nazis' rise to power through the first postwar years. The exhibition focuses on the protagonists of this darkest time in human history: the Germans and other perpetrators, and the Jews.
The Valley of the Communities in Yad Vashem is a massive 2.5-acre monument literally dug out of natural bedrock. Over 5000 names of communities are engraved on the stonewalls in the Valley of the Communities. Each name recalls a Jewish community, which existed for hundreds of years; for the inhabitants, each community constituted an entire world. Today, in most cases, nothing remains but the name.
Approximately one and a half million of the six million Jews murdered in the Holocaust were children. The number of children who survived is estimated in the mere thousands. This exhibition opens a window into the world of children during the Shoah. Unlike other Holocaust exhibitions, it does not focus on history, statistics or descriptions of physical violence. Instead, the toys, games, artwork, diaries, and poems displayed here highlight some of the personal stories of the children, providing a glimpse into their lives during the Holocaust.
A photo archive demonstrating various events and holidays before, during and after the Holocaust.
Of particular note among the vast quantity of documentation pertaining to the Warsaw Ghetto found in various archives and libraries, is the tremendous number of photographs. There are photos portraying almost every aspect of life and death there. These photos fall into several categories: from amateur pictures, through photos taken by journalists and professional propagandists, to three-dimensional and color photos. Generally speaking there are two types of photos that were taken in the ghetto, and these can be further divided into sub-categories: photos that were taken by the Germans, and those that were photographed by others. These collections cover four completely different perspectives of the ghetto, and they are a sampling of the various spheres that were documented on film in the ghetto, as well as the different photographers who worked there.
The Yad Vashem Art Museum comprises the largest collection of Holocaust Art in the world. This art was predominantly created by Jewish artists living under German occupation, in cities, ghettos and concentration camps during WWII.
Diplomats enjoyed a special status in the countries where they served and were in a unique position to extend significant help to refugees. For persecuted Jews desperately seeking visas to escape Nazi terror, the actions of these diplomats often were the difference between life and death. Many used every nuance of the regulations to keep Jews from entering their countries. Yet a few shine as beacons of light in the vast darkness...lone lighthouses guiding refugees past the lethal rocks and deadly minefields of the Holocaust.
On November 9, 1938, the Nazis unleashed a series of riots against the Jews in Germany and Austria. In the space of a few hours, thousands of synagogues and Jewish businesses and homes were damaged or destroyed. For the first time, tens of thousands of Jews were sent to concentration camps simply because they were Jewish. This event came to be called Kristallnacht ("Night of the Broken Glass") for the shattered store windowpanes that carpeted German streets. At this site there are a variety of on-line resources about Kristallnacht that will enhance your understanding of the event and provide visual documentation.
On May 13, 1939, the German transatlantic liner St. Louis set sail from Hamburg, Germany, for Havana, Cuba. Almost all of the 937 passengers were Jews fleeing from the Third Reich. Tragically, most would be sent back to a continent about to be engulfed in Hitler's war. Through historical research, detective work, and an exhaustive media campaign, Museum researchers tried to piece together the fates of the passengers.
Overview of the events, victims and political outcomes of Kristallnacht, 9 November, 1938.
Through reproductions of some 250 historic photographs and documents, Nazi Persecution of Homosexuals 1933-1945 examines the rationale, means, and impact of the Nazi regime's attempt to eradicate homosexuality that left thousands dead and shattered the lives of many exhibition is the first in a series about the lesser–known victims of the Nazi era.
During the first half of the 20th century, Polish-born Jewish artist Arthur Szyk raised his pen against anti-Semitism and Nazi tyranny. Through his artwork, Szyk exposed the persecution of Europe’s Jews and pushed for international intervention to end the Holocaust.
Music was heard in many ghettos, concentration camps, and partisan outposts of Nazi-controlled Europe. While popular songs dating from before the war remained attractive as escapist fare, the ghetto, camp, and partisan settings also gave rise to a repertoire of new works. These included topical songs inspired by the latest gossip and news, and songs of personal expression that often concerned the loss of family and home.
May 8, 1945, marked the end of hostilities and a turn toward peace for war-ravaged Europe. For those who had survived the Nazi Holocaust, however, the end of the war brought the beginning of a long and arduous period of rebirth. As many as 100,000 Jewish survivors found themselves among the seven million uprooted and homeless people classified as displaced persons (DPs)...
In conjunction with National Poetry Month, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum presented a special one-day program devoted exclusively to poetry inspired by the Holocaust. This exceptional day of events included a reading by Czeslaw Milosz, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature and the National Medal of Arts...
The indigenous Jewish communities of Greece represent the longest continuous Jewish presence in Europe. These communities, along with those who settled in Greece after their expulsion from Spain, were almost completely destroyed in the Holocaust. In the spring of 1941, the Germans defeated the Greek army and occupied Greece until October of 1944...
During the Holocaust much of Jewish cultural heritage was destroyed — religious objects melted down and books burned or sent for pulp. Only the Nazis preserved a sample of Jewish culture for their own 'scientific' purposes. At war's end Allied forces uncovered huge stores of looted books, often lying strewn in makeshift depots. What was to be done with this valuable cultural legacy?
Relatively few rescued Jews in German-occupied Europe. Indifference, anti-Semitism, and fear all deterred efforts. But among those risking imprisonment and death to save Jews were individual Christian clergy, who hid thousands of Jewish children in religious institutions or with willing families. Angered at Nazi policies, Father Jacques made the boys' school in Avon, France, a refuge...
Josef Nassy (1904–1976), a black expatriate artist of Jewish descent, was one of 2,000 civilians holding American passports who were confined in German internment camps during World War II. While imprisoned for three years, Nassy created a unique visual diary of more than 200 paintings and drawings.
Blacks suffered racism during World War II, but did not often suffer the same fate as Jews and other undesirables during the Holocaust. This web page takes a look at the black experience during World War II.
On December 9, 1946, an American military tribunal opened criminal proceedings against 23 leading German physicians and administrators for their willing participation in war crimes and crimes against humanity. For the 50th anniversary, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum presents excerpts from the official record: Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10.
Ken McVay founded Nizkor to answer the claims of those who say that the Holocaust did not happen. Although it fulfills that role extremely well, it is also simply an excellent source for scientific and historical information about the Holocaust.
This page from the History Place describes the laws and includes a photograph of a chart used to explain who the Nazis did and not consider Jewish.
This page from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum gives more information about the Evian Conference.
The Wannsee Conference -- More information on the Wannsee Conference can be found on this page from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
This page from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum focuses on the series of Nuremberg Trials begun in December of 1946. Twenty-three doctors and administrators were accused of crimes against humanity for their work on Nazi euthanasia programs and in medical experiments conducted with concentration camp inmates.
This page offers a gallery of photographs of Auschwitz-Birkenau taken by Alan Jacobs.
This page from Nizkor gives an overview of the facts surrounding the murders and medical experiments, which took place at Auschwitz.
A very thorough and informative online exhibit about the Treblinka camp with links to other camps.
Anthony Anderson wrote this history of the Netherlands under the Third Reich.