History Adventure
Proto-National Revolutions - Chapter 4
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Summary - Chapter 4 is about revolutions based on the Enlightenment ideals justifying the American and French Revolutions.  In Latin American, natives were very conscious of their inferior status to Spaniards, and prompted by the U.S., revolted.  In Europe, the Industrial Revolution caused the growing middle and working classes to be more conscious of their lower political status and ethnic differences, resulting in widespread revolt.  In general, the revolutions in Europe did not succed, but provided a wake-up call for governments to try to reform their laws and enfranchise more people, specifically the middle class.  In Latin America, U. S. protection under the Monroe Doctrine aided the success of countries breaking away from their European overlords.

Notes from 1/3/2005: See attached html document on ideologies (conservatives and liberals)
Notes from 1/4/2005:
  • Revolution in France: This PowerPoint show is good for reviewing the pertinent events and people that occur during the revolutions of 1830 and 1848.  Remember - "when France sneezes, Europe catches a cold!"
  • Revolutions of 1848 - This is an excerpted online PowerPoint presentation by Dr. Streeter from SMSU which should help flesh out and explain much of Section 2 in your textbook.

Revolution in Cologne, 1848

Simon Bolivar - The Liberator

Ch 4 Study Guide


Old order



Status quo

John Stuart Mill

Adam Smith

David Ricardo




Serbian Revolt

Greek Independence 1821

Concert of Europe


Charles X

Louis Philippe

Citizen king

Revolution of 1830

Charter of French Liberties

French Revolution of 1848

February Days

Louis Blanc


Social Workshops

June Days

Louis Napoleon

Napoleon III, 1852

Second French Empire

Belgium, 1831


Springtime of the Peoples

Louis Kossuth

Italy – Roman republic

Frankfurt Assembly

Frederick William IV of Prussia

Simon Bolivar







Haiti, 1820

Toussaint L’Oucerture

Father Miguel Hidalgo

El Grito de Dolores

Jose Morales

Mexico, 1820

Agustin de Iturbide / Emperor Agustin I

United Provinces of Central America

Tupac Amaru

Venezuela, 1810

The Liberator

Jose de San Martin

Gran Colombia

Brazil, 1822

Dom Pedro


Possible Essay Topics:

  • Conditions in Latin America before and after the Revolutions
  • Compare/Contrast ideologies (conservative, liberal, nationalist)
  • Describe the changes in government during the French Revolutions of 1830-1848
  • Describe the effectiveness of the various revolutions in Europe during the early 1800s
  • evaluate the effectiveness of the different fathers of revolution and their impact on future generations
  • analyze the rise of nationalism during the early 1800s
  • analyze the effecvt of the Enlightenment thinkers on the revolutions during the early 1800s
  • analyze the geography of revolution during the early 1800s

Extra Credit for Chapter 4 (+8):

Create a 3-paragraph essay or 5-7 slide PowerPoint presentation regarding the Latin American Revolutions of the early 1800s, focusing on a specific country and/or hero (you cannot choose Simon Bolivar!).  Make sure that your grammar and spelling are correct, that you have not plagiarized and information (remember to document your sources), have a bibliography of at least 3 sources, and turn it in digitally by the test date.

Copyright 2004, Ann-Marie Fine.  All Rights reserved.
Last updated, December 2004.