History Adventure
WHH: Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment & American Revolution - Chapter 6
Latin Poetry
World History
World History Honors
World History Core
Latin 1-2
Latin 3-4
Latin Prose
Meet Your Teacher
Teacher Technology Trainer

This chapter is divided into three portions - the Scientific Revolution a time period of scientific discovery and advancement; the Enlightenment, a period of philosophical and social flowering; and the American Revolution, the birth of the modern United States.  We will look at how the thoughts and ideas from the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment inspired American colonial leaders to revolt against George III, King of England, to form a new, democratically-based government.
Homework Packet due the day of the test.

Steps to Modern Thought
1. Renaissance
*start to think about man's life on earth
*the power of the Catholic Church starts to decrease
2. Reformation
*Catholic Church's authority is challenged by Luther, Calvin & others
*People start to think about an individual's relationship with g-d
*People begin to read the Bible on their own
3. Scientific Revolution
*scientists use logic, reason, human mental ability to solve problems
*universe is viewed as a machine
*people tried to predict outcomes (results) based on logical thinking & observation
4. Enlightenment
*philosophers use scientific methods (logic, reason, observation, etc) to look at human behavior
*use scientific methods to solve human problems and create ideal situations (eg - what kind of government is the best?)
Scientific Revolution Notes (9/2012)

Rene Descartes  (deductive reasoning) – Discourses on Method

Too many laws lead to confusion, so a country is best guided by only a few laws. I use only 4 rules of logic which work well for me.
1.      Never believe something is true unless I know it for certain.
2.      Divide problems into as many manageable small parts as possible.
3.      Start with easy & work way to most complex till I’ve solved the problem.
4.      Will keep complete notes so I won’t forget anything.
These rules are the same in geometry; it is a good example. So, stop blindly accepting as truth things that people are unsure about & investigate all problems using a step-by-step method to allow deduction of one truth from another. 

Steps to Scientific Method:
1.      State problem.
2.      Gather info on problem.
3.      Organize and order collected info.
4.      Create a hypothesis/solution based on gathered info.
5.      Draw deductions from hypothesis/solution.
6.      Check truth of hypothesis/solution.

Francis Bacon (inductive reasoning) – Magna Instauratio

People who are content with the present are not making plans for the future. Books nowadays say nothing new, only old/same stuff over & over. Knowledge of science hasn’t progressed at all. No new answers or questions, even in academics. People, only a few, do conduct experiments, but don’t have a set step-by-step standard. People rely on old books rather than own intellect. People should record only carefully designed experiments. Facts should prove all hypotheses true or false.

Francis Bacon Reading:
Rene Descartes Reading:
Notes on the Enlightenment, 9/5-6/07:
Enlightenment = Age of Reason
during 1700s/ 18th century
John Locke -
people can govern themselves
natural rights = life, liberty, & property
Baron de Montesquieu -
every government is valid
constitutional monarchy vs. absolute monarchy
GB vs. Fr
Magna Carta
checks & balances
3 branches of government = executive, legislative & judicial
Thomas Hobbes -
people are mean, warlike, brutish, can't run own lives
absolute monarchy
John Jacques Rousseau -
the General Will = rule of the majority
Voltaire -
freedom from censorship, of religion, of speech
Notes on the Enlightenment 9/7/07-
Adam Smith
gov't should not interfere with business or trade
supply and demand
Wealth of Nations
Mary Wollstonecraft
Vindocation of the Rights of Women
women are equal ot men
women should be educated
doaughter Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein
Enlightenment (Section 1.2) deals with:
Enlightened ideas spread via books and salons
Enlightened Despots are - Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia and Joseph II of Austria
Social/Cultural Trends - music, art & serfs

compare/contrast US & GB government
US -
president elected by people
representative democracy
constitution 1787 changed by amendments
3 branches
GB -
prime minister elected/appointed by majority political party
whigs/tories (1700s); now Labour/Conservatives/Liberals
consitutional monarchy
Magna Carta 1215
Bill of Rights 1689
both are changed by passage of laws
2 branches of government

American Revolution Board Notes:

1750s – French & Indian War/ Seven Years

1764 – Sugar Act

1765 – Stamp Act

            Stamp Act Congress

1770 – Boston Massacre

1773 – Tea Act

            Boston Tea Party

Samuel Adams

Sons of Liberty

1774 – Quartering Act

1775 – Battles of Lexington & Concord

            Governor General Thomas Gage

1776 – Declaration of Independence

            Thomas Jefferson

            Continental Congress

1777 – Battle of Saratoga

            French aid USA

1781 – Battle of Yorktown

            General Cornwallis

1782-83 – Treaty of Paris


Map of 13 Colonies

Salon Project - Due September 18 (NB- presentation should be 5-8 minutes long)
Recommended Reading:
Voltaire's Candide
Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws
Thomas Paine - Common Sense (this is the excerpt that you should use for your homework packet - it is only 4 pages long!!!!)

Helpful Videos:

Washington Crossing the Delaware

Study Guide Chapter 6


Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment & American Revolution


Geocentric theory

Scientific Revolution, 1500s-1700s

Heliocentric theory

Nicholaus Copernicus

Johannes Kepler

Galileo Galilei

Scientific method

Francis Bacon

Rene Descartes

Issac Newton

Examples of scientific instruments

Andreas Vesalius

Edward Jenner

Robert Boyle

Enlightenment, 1600s-1700s

Age of Reason

Thomas Hobbes

John Locke

Social contract



Baron de Montesquieu

Jean Jaques Rousseau

Cesare Bonesana Beccaria

Mary Wollstonecraft

Other women of the Enlightenment

Legacy of the Enlightenment




Diderot’s Encyclopedia



Classical music


Enlightened despots

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Joseph II of Austria

Catherine the Great of Russia

Northern America colonies (know map)

Navigation Act

French & Indian War

Stamp Act

Boston Tea Party

Battle of Lexington & Concord

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776

Thomas Jefferson

Battle of Saratoga, 1777

Colonial advantages/disadvantages during the revolution

Battle of Yorktown, 1781

Articles of Confederation

US Constitution

Federal system

Checks & balances

Bill of Rights



Possible Essay topics -

1. compare/contrast the various philosophes

2. analyze the causes and/or effects of the American Revolution

3. compare/contrast the different types of government that the American colonies and/or early United States had

4. Discuss the importance of discoveries during the Scientific Revolution 


2014 format=30MC+essay


Go to www.classzone.com for online aids aligned with your textbook. There are audio tours, self-tests, and additional section summaries that will be helpful for this class.

Copyright 2011-2013, Ann-Marie Fine. All Rights reserved.
Last Updated, September 2013.